Our group is working on the optimization of the read-out electronics for calorimeters (FPGA-TDC based readout electronics) to achieve individually optimized time and energy measurements including the interfacing to HADES and/or CBM read-out is needed in both cases.
Low Gain Avalanche Diodes (LGAD) are an intriguing new technology in the form of silicon sensors with a built-in gain mechanism. These semiconductor devices offer an excellent timing precision of στ < 50 ps, in combination with a high radiation hardness and a high position resolution realized by the metalization of the sensors.
Our group is working on various applications of LGADs in High Energy Physics Experiments:
- Development of a reaction time (T0) detector based on LGADs for HADES for experiments with relativistic proton and pion beams.
- This detector will conduct precise T0 measurements and therefore enable a precise Particle IDentification (PID) using Time of Flight (ToF) measurements. In addition, this detector will fulfill beam monitoring duties with position resolution better than 0.5 mm.
- Feasibility studies, e.g. radiation hardness studies, are planned to investigate the possibility of using LGADs in experiments with relativistic heavy ions at HADES and CBM.
- Using LGADs at the S-Dalinac in order to precisely monitor the arriving time of electron bunches and use the timing information to operate the S-Dalinac in the so called Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) mode.
- In the scope of designing detectors consisting of multiple LGADs, e.g. a T0-barrel detector research on a dedicated ASIC is done.
Our group is active in the research and development of beam detectors for the future CBM experiment at the FAIR facility (see https://www.cbm.gsi.de/). The aim of this project is to develop and deliver a high-speed time-zero (T0) detector. This detector must meet the requirements of the CBM time-of-flight (ToF) measurement system for beams of protons and heavy ions and should also allow for beam monitoring. We plan to realize the detector on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond basis but we are also evaluating new LGAD (Low Gain Avalanche Detector) technologies.
The STAR Collaboration and institutions from the CBM Collaboration (Heidelberg, Darmstadt, Tsinghua, CCNU, and USTC) have agreed to install an endcap time-of-flight detector in the STAR detector for phase II of the beam energy scan at RHIC. The eTOF detector crucially complements the particle identification capabilities at forward-to-mid rapidities for collider and fixed target programs. The main goal of the eTOF detector is to provide excellent time resolution of the order of < 100 ps, and a position resolution along the strip as good as < 5 mm. Our group played a major role in the software development for the eTOF data unpacking, calibration, building of hits, track matching and particle identification was developed.
The eTOF has been installed in 2019-2020 and successfully operated during various runs in 2021.